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8-361 Adoption of interstate compact for juveniles

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The governor is authorized and directed to enter into a compact on behalf of this state with any of the United States lawfully joined in the compact in a form substantially as follows:

ARTICLE I

PURPOSE

A. This state and the other compacting states to this interstate compact recognize that each state is responsible for the proper supervision or return of juveniles, delinquents and status offenders who are on probation or parole and who have absconded, escaped or run away from supervision and control and in so doing who have endangered their own safety and the safety of others. The compacting states also recognize that Congress, by enacting the crime control act, 4 United States Code Section 112 (1965), has authorized and encouraged compacts for cooperative efforts and mutual assistance in the prevention of crime.

B. It is the purpose of this compact, through means of joint and cooperative action among the compacting states, to do all of the following:

1. Ensure that adjudicated juveniles and status offenders who are subject to this compact are provided with adequate supervision and services in the receiving state as ordered by the adjudicating judge or parole authority in the sending state.

2. Ensure that the public safety interests of the citizens, including the victims of juvenile offenders, in both the sending and receiving states are adequately protected.

3. Return juveniles who have run away, absconded or escaped from supervision or control or have been accused of an offense to the state requesting their return.

4. Make contracts for the cooperative institutionalization in public facilities in member states for delinquent youth who need special services.

5. Provide for the effective tracking and supervision of juveniles.

6. Equitably distribute the costs, benefits and obligations of the compact among the compacting states.

7. Establish procedures to manage the movement between states of juvenile offenders who are released to the community under the jurisdiction of courts, juvenile departments or any other criminal or juvenile justice agency that has jurisdiction over juvenile offenders.

8. Ensure immediate notice to jurisdictions where defined offenders are authorized to travel or to relocate across state lines.

9. Establish procedures to resolve pending charges or detainers against juvenile offenders before transfer or release to the community under the terms of this compact.

10. Establish a system of uniform data collection pertaining to juveniles who are subject to this compact that allows access by authorized criminal justice officials and regular reporting of compact activities to heads of state executive, judicial and legislative branches and criminal justice administrators.

11. Monitor compliance with rules governing interstate movement of juveniles and initiate interventions to address and correct noncompliance.

12. Coordinate training and education regarding the regulation of interstate movement of juveniles for officials involved in such activity.

13. Coordinate the implementation and operation of the compact with the interstate compact for the placement of children, the interstate compact for the supervision of adult offenders and other compacts that affect juveniles, particularly in those cases where concurrent or overlapping supervision issues arise.

C. It is the policy of the compacting states that the activities that are conducted by the interstate commission created under this compact are the formation of public policies and therefore are public business. Furthermore, the compacting states shall cooperate and observe their individual and collective duties and responsibilities for the prompt return and acceptance of juveniles who are subject to the provisions of this compact. The provisions of this compact shall be reasonably and liberally construed to accomplish the purposes and policies of the compact.

ARTICLE II

DEFINITIONS

As used in this compact, unless the context clearly requires a different construction:

1. “Bylaws” mean those bylaws established by the interstate commission for its governance or for directing or controlling the interstate commission’s actions or conduct.

2. ”Commissioner” means the voting representative of each compacting state who is appointed pursuant to Article III of this compact.

3. “Compact administrator” means the individual in each compacting state who is appointed pursuant to the terms of this compact and who is responsible for the administration and management of the state’s supervision and transfer of juveniles who are subject to the terms of this compact, the rules adopted by the interstate commission and policies adopted by the state council under this compact.

4. ”Compacting state” means any state that has enacted the enabling legislation for this compact.

5. “Court” means any court that has jurisdiction over delinquent, neglected or dependent children.

6. “Deputy compact administrator” means the individual, if any, in each compacting state who is appointed to act on behalf of a compact administrator pursuant to the terms of this compact and who is responsible for the administration and management of the state’s supervision and transfer of juveniles who are subject to the terms of this compact, the rules adopted by the interstate commission and policies adopted by the state council under this compact.

7. “Interstate commission” means the interstate commission for juveniles established by this compact.

8. ”Juvenile” means any person who is defined as a juvenile in any member state or by the rules of the interstate commission, including:

(a) Accused delinquents. For the purposes of this subdivision, “accused delinquents” means persons who are charged with an offense that, if committed by an adult, would be a criminal offense.

(b) Adjudicated delinquents. For the purposes of this subdivision, “adjudicated delinquents” means persons who have been found to have committed an offense that, if committed by an adult, would be a criminal offense.

(c) Accused status offenders. For the purposes of this subdivision, “accused status offenders” means persons who are charged with an offense that would not be a criminal offense if committed by an adult.

(d) Adjudicated status offenders. For the purposes of this subdivision, “adjudicated status offenders” means persons who have been found to have committed an offense that would not be a criminal offense if committed by an adult.

(e) Nonoffenders. For the purposes of this subdivision, “nonoffenders” means persons who are in need of supervision and who have not been accused or adjudicated as status offenders or delinquents.

9. “Noncompacting state” means any state that has not enacted the enabling legislation for this compact.

10. ”Probation or parole” means any kind of supervision or conditional release of juveniles that is authorized under the laws of the compacting states.

11. “Rules” means any written statement by the interstate commission that is adopted pursuant to article VI of this compact, that is of general applicability and that implements, interprets or prescribes a policy or provision of the compact, or an organizational, procedural or practice requirement of the commission, and that has the force and effect of statutory law in a compacting state and includes the amendment, repeal or suspension of an existing rule.

12. ”State” means a state of the United States, the District of Columbia or its designee, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the United States Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa and the Northern Mariana Islands.

ARTICLE III

Interstate commission for juveniles

A. The compacting states hereby create the “interstate commission for juveniles”. The interstate commission shall be a body corporate and joint agency of the compacting states. The interstate commission shall have all the responsibilities, powers and duties set forth herein and such additional powers as may be conferred upon it by subsequent action of the respective legislatures of the compacting states in accordance with the terms of this compact.

B. The interstate commission shall consist of commissioners who are appointed by the appropriate appointing authority in each state pursuant to the rules and requirements of each compacting state and in consultation with the state council for interstate juvenile supervision created under this compact. The commissioner shall be the compact administrator, deputy compact administrator or designee from that state who shall serve on the interstate commission in such capacity under or pursuant to the applicable law of the compacting state.

C. In addition to the commissioners who are the voting representatives of each state, the interstate commission shall include individuals who are not commissioners but who are members of interested organizations. The noncommissioner members must include a member of the national organizations of governors, legislators, state chief justices, attorneys general, interstate compact for the supervision of adult offenders, interstate compact for the placement of children, juvenile justice and juvenile corrections officials and crime victims. All noncommissioner members of the interstate commission shall be ex officio or nonvoting members. The interstate commission may provide in its bylaws for such additional ex officio or nonvoting members, including members of other national organizations, in such numbers as is determined by the commission.

D. Each compacting state represented at any meeting of the interstate commission is entitled to one vote. A majority of the compacting states shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business, unless a larger quorum is required by the bylaws of the interstate commission.

E. The interstate commission shall meet at least once each calendar year. The chairperson may call additional meetings and, upon the request of a simple majority of the compacting states, shall call additional meetings. Public notice shall be given of all meetings, and meetings shall be open to the public.

F. The interstate commission shall establish an executive committee which shall include commission officers, members and others as shall be determined by the bylaws. The executive committee shall have the power to act on behalf of the interstate commission during periods when the interstate commission is not in session, with the exception of rule making or amendment to the compact, or both. The executive committee oversees the day-to-day activities of the administration of the compact managed by an executive director and interstate commission staff, administers enforcement and compliance with the provisions of the compact, its bylaws and rules and performs other duties as directed by the interstate commission or set forth in the bylaws.

G. Each member of the interstate commission shall have the right and power to cast a vote to which that compacting state is entitled and to participate in the business and affairs of the interstate commission. A member shall vote in person and shall not delegate a vote to another compacting state. However, a commissioner, in consultation with the state council, shall appoint another authorized representative, in the absence of the commissioner from that state, to cast a vote on behalf of the compacting state at a specified meeting. The bylaws may provide for members’ participation in meetings by telephone or other means of telecommunication or electronic communication.

H. The interstate commission’s bylaws shall establish conditions and procedures under which the interstate commission shall make its information and official records available to the public for inspection or copying. The interstate commission may exempt from disclosure any information or official records to the extent they would adversely affect personal privacy rights or proprietary interests.

I. Public notice shall be given of all meetings and all meetings shall be open to the public, except as set forth in the rules or as otherwise provided in the compact. The interstate commission and any of its committees may close a meeting to the public if it determines by two-thirds vote that an open meeting would be likely to:

1. Relate solely to the interstate commission’s internal personnel practices and procedures.

2. Disclose matters specifically exempted from disclosure by statute.

3. Disclose trade secrets or commercial or financial information which is privileged or confidential.

4. Involve accusing any person of a crime or formally censuring any person.

5. Disclose information of a personal nature if disclosure would constitute a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy.

6. Disclose investigative records compiled for law enforcement purposes.

7. Disclose information contained in or related to examination, operating or condition reports prepared by, or on behalf of or for the use of, the interstate commission with respect to a regulated person or entity for the purpose of regulation or supervision of such person or entity.

8. Disclose information, the premature disclosure of which would significantly endanger the life of a person or the stability of a regulated person or entity.

9. Specifically relate to the interstate commission’s issuance of a subpoena or its participation in a civil action or other legal proceeding.

J. For every meeting closed pursuant to this article, the interstate commission’s legal counsel shall publicly certify that, in the legal counsel’s opinion, the meeting may be closed to the public and shall reference each relevant exemptive provision. The interstate commission shall keep minutes which shall fully and clearly describe all matters discussed in any meeting and shall provide a full and accurate summary of any actions taken, and the reasons therefor, including a description of each of the views expressed on any item and the record of any roll call vote reflected in the vote of each member on the question.  All documents considered in connection with any action shall be identified in such minutes.

K. The interstate commission shall collect standardized data concerning the interstate movement of juveniles as directed through its rules. The rules shall specify the data to be collected, the means of collection and data exchange and reporting requirements. Such methods of data collection, exchange and reporting shall insofar as is reasonably possible conform to up-to-date technology and coordinate their information functions with the appropriate repository of records.

ARTICLE IV

POWERS AND DUTIES OF THE INTERSTATE COMMISSION

The interstate commission shall have the following powers:

1. To provide for dispute resolution among compacting states.

2. To promulgate rules to effect the purposes and obligations as enumerated in this compact. The rules shall have the force and effect of statutory law and shall be binding in the compacting states to the extent and in the manner provided in this compact.

3. To oversee, supervise and coordinate the interstate movement of juveniles subject to the terms of this compact and any bylaws adopted and rules promulgated by the interstate commission.

4. To enforce compliance with compact provisions, interstate commission rules and bylaws, using all necessary and proper means, including, but not limited to, the use of judicial process.

5. To establish and maintain offices which shall be located within one or more of the compacting states.

6. To purchase and maintain insurance and bonds.

7. To borrow, accept, hire or contract for services of personnel.

8. To establish and appoint committees and hire staff which it deems necessary for the carrying out of its functions including, but not limited to, an executive committee as required by article III which shall have the power to act on behalf of the interstate commission in carrying out its powers and duties hereunder.

9. To elect or appoint such officers, attorneys, employees, agents or consultants, to fix their compensation, define their duties and determine their qualifications and to establish the interstate commission’s personnel policies and programs relating to, among other things, conflicts of interest, rates of compensation and qualifications of personnel.

10. To accept any and all donations and grants of money, equipment, supplies, materials and services and to receive, utilize and dispose of them.

11. To lease, purchase, accept contributions or donations of, or otherwise to own, hold, improve or use, any property, real, personal or mixed.

12. To sell, convey, mortgage, pledge, lease, exchange, abandon or otherwise dispose of any property, real, personal or mixed.

13. To establish a budget and make expenditures and levy dues as provided in article VIII of this compact.

14. To sue and be sued.

15. To adopt a seal and bylaws governing the management and operation of the interstate commission.

16. To perform such functions as may be necessary or appropriate to achieve the purposes of this compact.

17. To report annually to the legislatures, governors, judiciary and state councils of the compacting states concerning the activities of the interstate commission during the preceding year. Such reports shall also include any recommendations that may have been adopted by the interstate commission.

18. To coordinate education, training and public awareness regarding the interstate movement of juveniles for officials involved in such activity.

19. To establish uniform standards for the reporting, collecting and exchanging of data.

20. To maintain its corporate books and records in accordance with the bylaws.

ARTICLE V

ORGANIZATION AND OPERATION OF THE INTERSTATE COMMISSION

A. The interstate commission, by a majority of the members, within twelve months of the first interstate commission meeting, shall adopt bylaws to govern its conduct as may be necessary or appropriate to carry out the purposes of the compact, including, but not limited to:

1. Establishing the fiscal year of the interstate commission.

2. Establishing an executive committee and such other committees as may be necessary.

3. Providing for the establishment of committees governing any general or specific delegation of any authority or function of the interstate commission.

4. Providing reasonable procedures for calling and conducting meetings of the interstate commission and ensuring reasonable notice of each such meeting.

5. Establishing the titles and responsibilities of the officers of the interstate commission.

6. Providing a mechanism for winding up the operations of the interstate commission and the equitable return of any surplus funds that may exist upon the termination of the compact after the payment or reserving, or both, of all of its debts and obligations.

7. Providing start-up rules for initial administration of the compact.

8. Establishing standards and procedures for compliance and technical assistance in carrying out the compact.

B. The interstate commission, by a majority of the members, shall elect from among its members a chairperson and a vice-chairperson, each of whom shall have such authorities and duties as may be specified in the bylaws. The chairperson or, in the chairperson’s absence or disability, the vice-chairperson, shall preside at all meetings of the interstate commission. The officers so elected shall serve without compensation or remuneration from the interstate commission, except that, subject to the availability of budgeted funds, the officers shall be reimbursed for any actual and necessary costs and expenses incurred by them in the performance of their duties and responsibilities as officers of the interstate commission.

C. The interstate commission, through its executive committee, shall appoint or retain an executive director for such period, upon such terms and conditions and for such compensation as the interstate commission may deem appropriate. The executive director shall serve as secretary to the interstate commission, shall not be a member and shall hire and supervise such other staff as may be authorized by the interstate commission.

D. The interstate commission’s executive director and employees shall be immune from suit and liability, either personally or in their official capacity, for any claim for damage to or loss of property or personal injury or other civil liability caused or arising out of any actual or alleged act, error or omission that occurred within the scope of interstate commission employment, duties or responsibilities, except that any such person shall not be protected from suit or liability for any damage, loss, injury or liability caused by the intentional or willful and wanton misconduct of any such person.

E. The liability of any commissioner, or the employee or agent of a commissioner, acting within the scope of such person’s employment or duties for acts, errors or omissions occurring within such person’s state may not exceed the limits of liability set forth under the constitution and laws of that state for state officials, employees and agents. Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to protect any such person from suit or liability for any damage, loss, injury or liability caused by the intentional or willful and wanton misconduct of any such person.

F. The interstate commission shall defend the executive director or the employees or representatives of the interstate commission and, subject to the approval of the attorney general of the state represented by any commissioner of a compacting state, shall defend such commissioner or the commissioner’s representatives or employees in any civil action seeking to impose liability arising out of any actual or alleged act, error or omission that occurred within the scope of interstate commission employment, duties or responsibilities, or that the defendant had a reasonable basis for believing occurred within the scope of interstate commission employment, duties or responsibilities, if the actual or alleged act, error or omission did not result from intentional or willful and wanton misconduct on the part of such person.

G. The interstate commission shall indemnify and hold the commissioner of a compacting state, the commissioner’s representatives or employees or the interstate commission’s representatives or employees harmless in the amount of any settlement or judgment obtained against such persons arising out of any actual or alleged act, error or omission that occurred within the scope of interstate commission employment, duties or responsibilities, or that such persons had a reasonable basis for believing occurred within the scope of interstate commission employment, duties or responsibilities, if the actual or alleged act, error or omission did not result from intentional or willful and wanton misconduct on the part of such person.

ARTICLE VI

RULE MAKING FUNCTIONS OF THE INTERSTATE COMMISSION

A. The interstate commission shall promulgate and publish rules in order to effectively and efficiently achieve the purposes of the Compact.

B. Rule making shall occur pursuant to the criteria set forth in this article and the bylaws and rules adopted pursuant thereto. Such rule making shall substantially conform to the principles of the “model state administrative procedures act,” 1981 Act, Uniform Laws Annotated, Vol. 15, p. 1 (2000), or such other administrative procedures act, as the interstate commission deems appropriate consistent with due process requirements under the United States Constitution as now or hereafter interpreted by the United States supreme court. All rules and amendments shall become binding as of the date specified in each rule or amendment, as published with the final version of the rule as approved by the interstate commission.

C. When promulgating a rule, the interstate commission, at a minimum, shall:

1. Publish the proposed rule’s entire text stating the reason for the proposed rule.

2. Allow and invite persons to submit written data, facts, opinions and arguments. This information shall be added to the record and made publicly available.

3. Provide an opportunity for an informal hearing if petitioned by ten or more persons.

4. Promulgate a final rule and its effective date, if appropriate, based on input from state or local officials or interested parties.

D. Not later than sixty days after a rule is promulgated, any interested person may file a petition in the United States district court for the District of Columbia or in the federal district court where the interstate commission’s principal office is located for judicial review of such rule. If the court finds that the interstate commission’s action is not supported by substantial evidence in the rule making record, the court shall hold the rule unlawful and set it aside.

E. If a majority of the legislatures of the compacting states rejects a rule, by enactment of a statute or resolution in the same manner used to adopt the compact, the rule shall have no further force and effect in any compacting state.

F. The existing rules governing the operation of the interstate compact on juveniles superseded by this act shall be null and void twelve months after the first meeting of the interstate commission created hereunder.

G. Upon determination by the interstate commission that an emergency exists, it may promulgate an emergency rule which shall become effective immediately upon adoption, except that the usual rule making procedures provided hereunder shall be retroactively applied to the rule as soon as reasonably possible, but no later than ninety days after the effective date of the emergency rule.

ARTICLE VII

OVERSIGHT, ENFORCEMENT AND DISPUTE RESOLUTION

BY THE INTERSTATE COMMISSION

A. The interstate commission shall oversee the administration and operations of the interstate movement of juveniles subject to this compact in the compacting states and shall monitor such activities being administered in noncompacting states which may significantly affect compacting states.

B. The courts and executive agencies in each compacting state shall enforce this compact and shall take all actions necessary and appropriate to effectuate the compact’s purposes and intent. The provisions of this compact and the rules promulgated hereunder shall be received by all the judges, public officers, commissions and departments of the state government as evidence of the authorized statute and administrative rules. All courts shall take judicial notice of the compact and the rules. In any judicial or administrative proceeding in a compacting state pertaining to the subject matter of this compact which may affect the powers, responsibilities or actions of the interstate commission, the interstate commission shall be entitled to receive all service of process in any such proceeding and shall have standing to intervene in the proceeding for all purposes.

C. The compacting states shall report to the interstate commission on issues or activities necessary for the administration of the compact as well as issues and activities pertaining to compliance with the provisions of the compact and its bylaws and rules.

D. On the request of a compacting state, the interstate commission shall attempt to resolve any disputes or other issues which are subject to the compact and which may arise among compacting states and between compacting and noncompacting states. The interstate commission shall promulgate a rule providing for both mediation and binding dispute resolution for disputes among the compacting states.

E. The interstate commission, in the reasonable exercise of its discretion, shall enforce the provisions and rules of this compact using any or all means set forth in article XI of this compact.

ARTICLE VIII

FINANCE

A. The interstate commission shall pay or provide for the payment of the reasonable expenses of its establishment, organization and ongoing activities.

B. The interstate commission shall levy on and collect an annual assessment from each compacting state to cover the cost of the internal operations and activities of the interstate commission and its staff which must be in a total amount sufficient to cover the interstate commission’s annual budget as approved each year. The aggregate annual assessment amount shall be allocated based upon a formula to be determined by the interstate commission, taking into consideration the population of each compacting state and the volume of interstate movement of offenders in each compacting state and shall promulgate a rule binding upon all compacting states which governs the assessment.

C. The interstate commission shall not incur any obligations of any kind before securing the funds adequate to meet the same. Nor shall the interstate commission pledge the credit of any of the compacting states, except by and with the authority of the compacting state.

D. The interstate commission shall keep accurate accounts of all receipts and disbursements. The receipts and disbursements of the interstate commission shall be subject to the audit and accounting procedures established under its bylaws. However, all receipts and disbursements of funds handled by the interstate commission shall be audited yearly by a certified or licensed public accountant and the report of the audit shall be included in and become part of the annual report of the interstate commission.

ARTICLE IX

THE STATE COUNCIL

A. Each member state shall create a state council for interstate juvenile supervision. While each state may determine the membership of its own state council, its membership must include at least one representative from the legislative, judicial and executive branches of government, victims groups and the compact administrator, deputy compact administrator or designee. Each compacting state retains the right to determine the qualifications of the compact administrator or deputy administrator.

B. Each state council shall exercise oversight and advocacy concerning that state’s participation in interstate commission activities and other duties as determined by that state, including, but not limited to, the development of policy concerning operations and procedures of the compact within that state.

ARTICLE X

COMPACTING STATES, EFFECTIVE DATE AND AMENDMENT

A. Any state, the District of Columbia or its designee, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the United States Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa and the Northern Mariana Islands as defined in article II of this compact are eligible to become compacting states.

B. The compact shall become effective and binding upon legislative enactment of the compact into law by no less than thirty-five of the States. The initial effective date shall be the later of July 1, 2004, or upon enactment into law by the thirty-fifth jurisdiction. Thereafter it shall become effective and binding, as to any other compacting state, upon enactment of the compact into law by that state. The governors of nonmember states or their designees will be invited to participate in interstate commission activities on a nonvoting basis before adoption of the compact by all states and territories of the United States.

C. The interstate commission may propose amendments to the compact for enactment by the compacting states. No amendment shall become effective and binding upon the interstate commission and the compacting states unless and until it is enacted into law by unanimous consent of the compacting states.

ARTICLE XI

WITHDRAWAL, DEFAULT, TERMINATION AND JUDICIAL ENFORCEMENT

A. Once effective, the compact shall continue in force and remain binding upon each and every compacting state, except that a compacting state may withdraw from the compact by enacting a statute specifically repealing the statute which enacted the compact into law. The effective date of withdrawal is the effective date of the repeal.

B. The withdrawing state shall immediately notify the chairperson of the interstate commission in writing upon the introduction of legislation repealing this compact in the withdrawing state. The interstate commission shall notify the other compacting states of the withdrawing state’s intent to withdraw within sixty days of its receipt thereof.

C. The withdrawing state is responsible for all assessments, obligations and liabilities incurred through the effective date of withdrawal, including any obligations, the performance of which extend beyond the effective date of withdrawal.

D. Reinstatement following withdrawal of any compacting state shall occur upon the withdrawing state reenacting the compact or upon such later date as determined by the interstate commission.

E. If the interstate commission determines that any compacting state has at any time defaulted in the performance of any of its obligations or responsibilities under this compact, the bylaws or any duly promulgated rules the interstate commission may impose any or all of the following penalties:

1. Remedial training and technical assistance as directed by the interstate commission.

2. Alternative dispute resolution.

3. Fines, fees and costs in such amounts as are deemed to be reasonable as fixed by the interstate commission.

4. Suspension or termination of membership in the compact. Suspension shall be imposed only after all other reasonable means of securing compliance under the bylaws and rules have been exhausted and the interstate commission has therefore determined that the offending state is in default. Immediate notice of suspension shall be given by the interstate commission to the governor, the chief justice or chief judicial officer of the state, the majority and minority leaders of the defaulting state’s legislature and the state council. The grounds for default include, but are not limited to, failure of a compacting state to perform such obligations or responsibilities imposed upon it by this compact, the bylaws or duly promulgated rules and any other grounds designated in commission bylaws and rules. The interstate commission shall immediately notify the defaulting state in writing of the penalty imposed by the interstate commission on the defaulting state pending a cure of the default. The interstate commission shall stipulate the conditions and the time period within which the defaulting state must cure its default. If the defaulting state fails to cure the default within the time period specified by the interstate commission, the defaulting state shall be terminated from the compact upon an affirmative vote of a majority of the compacting states and all rights, privileges and benefits conferred by this compact shall be terminated from the effective date of termination.

F. Within sixty days of the effective date of termination of a defaulting state, the interstate commission shall notify the governor, the chief justice or chief judicial officer, the majority and minority leaders of the defaulting state’s legislature and the state council of such termination.

G. The defaulting state is responsible for all assessments, obligations and liabilities incurred through the effective date of termination including any obligations, the performance of which extends beyond the effective date of termination.

H. The interstate commission shall not bear any costs relating to the defaulting state unless otherwise mutually agreed upon between the interstate commission and the defaulting state.

I. Reinstatement following termination of any compacting state requires both a reenactment of the compact by the defaulting state and the approval of the interstate commission pursuant to the rules.

J. The interstate commission, by majority vote of the members, may initiate legal action in the United States district court for the District of Columbia or, at the discretion of the interstate commission, in the federal district where the interstate commission has its offices to enforce compliance with the provisions of the compact, its duly promulgated rules and bylaws, against any compacting state in default. In the event judicial enforcement is necessary the prevailing party shall be awarded all costs of such litigation, including reasonable attorney fees.

K. The compact dissolves effective upon the date of the withdrawal or default of the compacting state which reduces membership in the compact to one compacting state. Upon the dissolution of this compact, the compact becomes null and void and shall be of no further force or effect, and the business and affairs of the interstate commission shall be wound up and any surplus funds shall be distributed in accordance with the bylaws.

ARTICLE XII

SEVERABILITY AND CONSTRUCTION

A. The provisions of this compact shall be severable, and if any phrase, clause, sentence or provision is deemed unenforceable, the remaining provisions of the compact shall be enforceable.

B. The provisions of this compact shall be liberally construed to effectuate its purposes.

ARTICLE XIII

BINDING EFFECT OF COMPACT AND OTHER LAWS

A. Nothing herein prevents the enforcement of any other law of a compacting state that is not inconsistent with this compact.

B. All compacting states’ laws other than state constitutions and other interstate compacts conflicting with this compact are superseded to the extent of the conflict.

C. All lawful actions of the interstate commission, including all rules and bylaws promulgated by the interstate commission, are binding on the compacting states. All agreements between the interstate commission and the compacting states are binding in accordance with their terms.

D. On the request of a party to a conflict over meaning or interpretation of interstate commission actions, and on a majority vote of the compacting states, the interstate commission may issue advisory opinions regarding such meaning or interpretation.

E. In the event any provision of this compact exceeds the constitutional limits imposed on the legislature of any compacting state, the obligations, duties, powers or jurisdiction sought to be conferred by such provision upon the interstate commission shall be ineffective and such obligations, duties, powers or jurisdiction shall remain in the compacting state and shall be exercised by the agency thereof to which such obligations, duties, powers or jurisdiction are delegated by law in effect at the time this compact becomes effective.

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